Write code that helps write code

Writing tool codeI have discovered a rather surprising fact about my fellow programmer colleagues. Some of them, hate, programming. They go through the day writing code, copying and pasting where appropriate, crushing bugs and then go home. Their distaste for writing code has blinded them to the notion of creating programs to help them in their work. They will only create a program for a project, and not create smaller helper programs to ease the work.

Code generators
For my university thesis, I wrote a simulation program for computer virus behaviour. It was coming along fine, until I wanted to have graphs of my results. The simulation program was written in C and I didn’t know how to create graphs from C. Luckily, I had some experience in Matlab, and remembered how to create graphs for mathematical functions.

So I added some code in my simulation to output the results in a text file, which became the input for my graph generating Matlab code. Basically I used two different programming languages to help in writing my work. The output of one became the input of another.

Random data generation
There was a time when I had to generate a huge amount of data in the database, for a presentation of a web application I developed. And it had to be relatively similar to the real production data. Copying and pasting SQL insert statements wasn’t going to cut it.

So I wrote a small program to generate the insert statements into a SQL script. Then I ran that script in the database. A couple of minutes to run the generation program, and another couple of minutes to run the script, and bingo, mass random data records.

Testbed applications
I have 3 testbed projects, one for console output, one for Windows programs and one for web applications. They are used to test out theories, like what would the output of DateTime.Now.ToString(“dd/MM/yyyy”) look like.

By having these testbeds, I can test my code in a tightly controlled environment, because that testbed application can do only one thing, the code I want to test. Sometimes, testing the code in the actual program is hard, because there can be a lot of other stuff around. Testbeds allow me to just test that chunk of code without all the other distracting fluff. Which helps me write better code.

Custom tool programs
Sometimes, a fully working program is written just so its output can be used in another program. The demoscene and game production are examples of this need.

Demos are computer programs generating stunning visuals and music in real time. Some demo groups, like Conspiracy, have created full-blown applications to help create content such as 3D models and sound files.

Game production teams have tool programs, such as a preview program of texture mapping on a 3D model for artists, or dungeon creation programs to produce the 3D dungeon model used in the game.

These tool programs are not packaged in the final product, yet are essential to the success of the product, because they help make creating the product easier.

Conclusion
Writing code can be easier. Using a professional code generation software might be overkill for a tiny bit of code. Copying and pasting can be tedious. With a little imagination, you can make your programming life easier, by writing code to help you write code.

Texture maps and the soul of programmers

Texture mapping is a technique which adds detail to 3 dimensional models. You’ll see it in graphically rendered movies like Toy Story or Shrek, and in games such as Doom and Final Fantasy XII.

Suppose we have two 3D models, a sphere and a fractal-generated terrain.
3D models of sphere and terrain
When we map a texture (which is just an image) such as
Sunset onto the 3D models, we get
3D models with sunset texture

If we change the texture to
Quiet campus and map that onto the 3D models, we get
3D models with quiet campus texture

Fundamentally, the 3D model is the same. The output changes because the texture is changed. It’s the same with programming. Two programmers will produce two different sets of program code, yet produce the same required logic.

The unique coding fingerprint of the programmer becomes the texture that maps onto the required logic (a 3D model). It’s the way the programmer thinks up a solution. It’s the way the programmer writes and organises code. It’s the personal touch that programmer has imparted onto the resulting program. And a skilled programmer can even alter the logic, such as adding checks not specified in requirements, to create a more useful resulting program.

When you’ve done enough programming of your own, reading other programmers’ code gives you insight into their minds. Understand why a piece of code is written the way it is written. There are many web sites providing programming help with sample code, most of them with further explanation of the code. So read through the entire solution, explanation, code and all.

Yes, you really really just need the code to solve your problem. When you’ve solved your problem, read through the code and try viewing the problem as the original programmer would have. You’ll learn even more because you’ll have gained some fraction of wisdom, and be better at creating solutions. You’ll have developed your unique texture, and the distinctive soul of a programmer.

Fractal nature of computer programming

Have you ever felt like you are doing the same things over and over and over again? Your daily commute, your workday schedule or your programming pattern?

Fractional capacity dimension
MandelbrotFractals possess the distinctive property of self similarity. They look the same when you zoom in and when you zoom out. Take a small part of a fractal, and it looks similar to another part of the fractal.

So how does programming come into the picture?

A simple programming structure
When you write a program, there are typically 3 sections to it:

  • Declare variables
  • Perform logic
  • Obtain a result

In the program, you might write functions to help break up the program into smaller pieces. And in the function code, you

  • Declare variables
  • Perform logic
  • Obtain a result

See any pattern yet? How about programs calling other programs? The caller program declares some variables, calls another program to perform logic, and obtain a result from that callee program.

Self referential
There’s a special type of function whose programming logic involves calling itself again. They are called recursive functions. An example is the function for calculating factorials. The factorial of 6 is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to 6. Or 1*2*3*4*5*6 = 720. The recursive function will be f(n) = n * f(n-1), where f(1) = 1. In code, it looks like

public int Factorial(int x)
{
if (x == 1) return 1;
else return x * Factorial(x - 1);
}

It is programmatically inefficient, but it is concise. (Math is like that sometimes…)

Iterative process of software development
The very cycle of software development is itself self similar. You develop, test, debug, roll out and get feedback from your users. Then based on the feedback, you develop again, test again, debug again, roll out the next version and get more feedback.

Sometimes, it’s even shorter. You write some code for a small part, test it until you’re satisfied with it. Then you write some code for another part and test that until you’re satisfied.

Can you give more programming examples with fractal properties?

Debug like a CSI

It is a morning like any other. You’ve got your tunes, you’ve got no one around in the office yet, and you are cranking out code like you’re on fire. Until some industrious user calls you and drags you out of your zone. You smile and nod as you listen to her explain that there’s been a tragedy, a terrible program error has occurred and she desperately needs your help. Time to debug like a CSI.

Document the scene
You ask her what exactly happened and you listen attentively as you jot down notes of her concerns, providing gentle affirmations and guiding her to the answers you seek. She’s practically in tears and just manage to tell you some name of the program she was using and a brief mention of the error itself. Then you ask her to provide you the most powerful piece of evidence she has: the screen shot of the error.

Gather evidence
So you’ve got an image of the error, and whilst you have every confidence in her statement, sometimes users just don’t see the difference between “An error occured” and “A Error occurred”. Her statement is probably something short like “I click Save button and there’s the error!”, so you don’t really have much to work on. She also probably sent you a 3 megabyte attachment of the screen shot and practically blew up your inbox. You note down the exact error message, and from her statement and the screen shot, find out the pertinent program responsible for making her life (and yours) miserable.

Evidence analysis
You open up the program code and use the Find function of the editor to track down the places where the exact error message occurred. You also retrace the steps taken for her to get that error. Hopefully, the error is documented in the code. If it’s a system error, then you’ll have to rely on her statement to pinpoint the exact location of the offending line of code.

You find out why the error occurred and if it’s actually correct that it happened, according to the business logic behind the program, then you give the user a call or an email to explain that everything’s fine and the error is supposed to happen. You might get more questions, such as the reasoning behind the business logic. But that’s another story.

Crime scene reconstruction
If you can’t find anything wrong, it’s time to reproduce the error. You have got to do exactly what the user is doing. It can be tedious when it’s production data you’ll be handling, and you have try out on a test environment. The test environment may not be identical to the production environment, some database tables might be missing from the test environment, and you’re starting to get cranky.

Somehow, you reproduce the error, and finally figure out the reason. You correct the error, recompile the program and send it to the user. You sigh as you are reminded of how poorly your department fails in the software management test you’ve read about, but that’s life.

Postmortem
Taking in a deep breath, and another swig of coffee, you settle back anxiously into your rhythm, half-expecting the user to call you to say that the error came back. After a few minutes, you slip into your zone again, the error forgotten like an ephemeral whisper…

Master your development tool of choice

Following the spirit of “Master your programming language of choice“, is the skillful use of your favourite development environment or IDE (integrated development environment), such as Microsoft Visual Studio or Dev-C++. You need to know the shortcuts, keyword highlighting and anything else that will make your programming job easier.

For example, if you deal with strings a lot (say SQL statements), it will help if your IDE makes it easier to find on the screen. The standard seems to be red colour for strings. The default colour highlighting for Visual Studio 2003 is black. How can you find any string literal in your code quickly if the string literal is the same colour as your code?

With all the advancements in development tools (such as Intellisense), you should be focusing on the one thing that computers cannot do for you: thinking. Thinking of the algorithm that will implement your business logic. Thinking of the different possibilities that your logic can succeed or fail, and handle them. There are lots of code generation tools out there to make your life easier. That said, there will be instances where you have to do the actual coding yourself.

Your greatest asset is your ability to think.

It’s not about you. It’s about results.

Recently, something happened that shook my confidence a little. Before I get to that, let me say that I’m a fairly competent in web applications, in particular, .Net web applications. I have done image creation/processing, CSS validations, and making sure the web applications are as cross-browser as possible. I have made the user interface as simple and as easy to use as possible. I’ve read up tons of security measures and implemented many of them on the web server and in programming too. I follow any sensible coding guideline. Database tables are designed to be relevant and scalable for as long a time as possible. I’ve even released two public web sites, all single-handedly done by me.

Now, in between doing new projects, I also try to improve existing ones. So I have this pet project. Being that it’s a pet project, I let my creativity fly on the web application. I tried out my own 3d rendered graphics. I pushed my CSS skills in managing display. I even tested out what was to me very new, AJAX, to make the web application more lively, more “real-time”.

Then one fine day, it was decided that my pet project is actually going to make a difference in the team’s overall productivity. So it became a full-fledged project. Suddenly there was a deadline. Suddenly people are going to see it and use it. I mean like really see this project of mine. And then it happened. My deluge of “change this”, “that’s not right” and “I want it that way” came.

For the first few seconds, I was like outraged. I mean who are they to comment on my work? I was enraged. I was indignant. Then, I calmed down. Because I realise that it doesn’t matter what you think. Ultimately those people who said “do this and do that” are the ones who will use your application. Accept that.

It’s not personal. (Ok, sometimes it is…), so I want you to concentrate on the results. What is it that the users ultimately want? Your code can be the most elegant piece of creative work there is, but if it doesn’t do what the user want, it’s useless.

Focus on the user. And yes, sometimes, you have to let go of your code.

Master your programming language of choice

I have gone through many a program where I would stare at a section of code, trying to figure out what it’s doing. After a while, a light of understanding would flood my consciousness, and I would ask, “Why did someone write like this?”

The problem? The task at hand required a certain function, say formatting output (quite common) for displaying a string of a length of 4 characters from a number between -999 and 999, inclusive of the negative sign. I would then see code checking if the number was negative (to determine if a minus sign was required), string trimming and left/right alignment of the number and so on.

Why did anyone go through all this when there’s a perfectly functioning formatting ability within the standard library of the language? (I’m thinking C at the moment, but most other languages are still applicable) I came to one conclusion: the programmer didn’t know about it.

You can be a better programmer by simply knowing more about the language you’re using. You don’t have to remember every single function available. You just need to know where to look. Albert Einstein said something to the effect of “I don’t remember anything that’s written in a book.” There are online libraries of programming languages. Use them.

As a programmer, you are paid to think up solutions and implement them via code, not reinvent something that’s already done and then code the business logic. Your creative abilities are more important than your memorisation skills.