$100 Startup bundle

I respect Chris Guillebeau a lot (possibly even a raving fan). His book $100 Startup is going to be on sale soon. But the more important reason is that you can get that together with a bunch of business-y stuff at Only72 right now for $100 total (yes, that’s totally an affiliate link).

Out of all the products in the bundle, I’m interested in the “How To Make iPhone Apps With No Programming Experience” ebook, the small business infrastructure ebook, and guide to publishing ebook.

You want to start a business? This’ll get you started. Hurry, it’s only on sale for 72 hours (hence the name).

Can’t wait to read Chris’s new book. Have I mentioned that’s a hardcover that will be shipped anywhere you live if you buy the bundle now?

“Startup founder” is not a career promotion for programmers

It’s a completely different career ladder.

In his book, “The E-Myth”, Michael Gerber identified 3 personas: the Technician, the Manager, and the Entrepreneur. Face it, you’re a Technician. And Michael identified a singularly fatal assumption:

If you understand the technical work of a business, you understand a business that does that technical work.

And that assumption is wrong. The technical side of a business is separate from the business itself.

And with many a technological startup that’s been popping up all over the place, and succeeding, it can be alluring to a programmer (I’m talking to you) to think that he can do the same.

And you can. But you must go into this knowing you’re running a business. Writing your killer web application may be fun, but it’s not your whole business.

Michael Gerber identified the Technician with bakers, chefs, hair stylists and other crafts people. People who do stuff. A subset of them are programmers. Our work, existing as software, can change within minutes (even seconds) of us changing source code and pushing the results out into the world.

A business can change almost as fast. But it’s a system that surrounds the software system. You need to know about the other parts that keep the business going.

Of the successful startups reported in big media blogs, there are also many more that failed into obscurity. Some of them created by single programmers. Maybe you.

Going the whole 9 yards with a startup can be your dream. Raising venture capital. Talking with VCs. Getting angels to invest in you. Raising funds in rounds 1 and 2 (or A and B or whatever they’re known as). Getting media blogs to notice you. Hiring code ninjas (just a thought: bad idea. Don’t hire if you can. And you don’t really need ninjas). Millions of users. Millions of dollars as an exit strategy. A life of cranking out code with [insert favourite brand of soda] and late nights.

Success or failure. From what I understand, a startup can go either way. There’s some control, but there’s still a fair amount of volatility. For all I know, a butterfly flapping its wings here in Singapore devastated a startup in Silicon Valley.

What you need is to understand at least the fundamentals of a business. The fastest way to learn is to start a business yourself. But you don’t have to start it with your precious web application. Your first business attempt is probably going to suck in an epic nuclear explosion. Don’t make it your precious web application.

I’m writing a guide to teach programmers how to start a small online business. It shouldn’t take you more than a month to start, and it shouldn’t take you more than a couple of hours a week to maintain it. This is what Tim Ferriss calls a “muse”. If you’re not too picky, my calculations put your total investment to be no more than US$ 200. And that pays for at least a year (mostly web hosting costs).

The fun part is that the knowledge you gain from running your own small online business, is that most of it can be scaled to larger businesses. Maybe that startup you’re thinking of.

The business guide will be ready in a couple more weeks. Maybe sooner. This is a heads up in case you’re interested. If you have questions, just contact me.

6 weeks in a startup

I looked up the word “startup”. It means “fledgling company” or something to that effect. However, in our current times, the word “startup” has been mostly associated with high technology companies founded by college students who’ve yet to see their 25th year. In fact, Jessica Livingston (a co-founder of Y Combinator) said in a Mixergy interview that there was only 1 non-tech startup that they’ve funded (out of the 200+ startups at the point of interview).

So I worked at a startup before. It’s very different from the stories I’ve read. Ok, this was near the end of 2004. I think web apps were just starting to gain traction then.

Why I left my comfy corporate job

It was near the end of my contract (contracts were renewed on a yearly basis). Although I was told I had a high chance of being re-hired, I had other plans. I edited Unix shell scripts, fixed data corruption errors, created Crystal Reports objects and basically used Microsoft Excel more than I used Visual Studio.

I wanted to use C# but my team was deeply entrenched with VB.NET (mainly because the front end guys were more comfortable with VB.NET). My manager forgot my name when he introduced the team members to the users at a meeting. My manager also said anyone can do programming. (My manager eventually remembered my name, but it was a very long and awkward 3 seconds).

So I found a job listing at a startup. It promised the use of C# and “extreme programming“. I didn’t know what the latter was, but man did it sound awesome! I went for the interview, was told that I had to do lots of regular expressions, and I got the job. I was paid less there, but I thought it was worth it. I planned a holiday to New Zealand, and the new job would start the Monday just after I came back to Singapore.

If you’re interested, you can read about my trip here: Day 0, Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, Day 4, Day 5, Day 6, Day 7, Day 8, Day 9. The highlight was day 8, where I was broke and hungry in a foreign country. I took meticulous notes on my trip…

Now the story you’re about the read was taken from my memory, so the details will be fuzzy. But the chronological order is about correct…

Week 1

So I started my first day at the startup the very next day after I came back home from the New Zealand trip. I was refreshed and ready to start. And my first mistake happened way before I went for my holiday trip. At the interview, when asked what I saw myself in 5 years time (ever asked this question?), I said I’d be the team leader of a group of programmers.

And the founder (there was only one) gave me managerial tasks. I was to handle the administrative work and equipment. My first task was to fix the printer. I kid you not.

A bit of background at this point. The founder was a professor at National University of Singapore. He had a PhD in astrophysics if I recall, and degrees/PhDs in other disciplines. The startup work place was near the NUS campus. It was a small room, barely big enough for 4 people and their computer desks. If I understood it correctly, there was Employee #1 (E#1) and his wife, Employee #2. They were both Chinese from China. I bring up their nationality because they would do something later that might make sense if you knew this information now.

The product of the startup was a software program to search, collect and sort patents. It was a Windows executable program written in C#. I believe E#1 had worked on this for a couple of months already (at least). His wife handled the graphics, such as icons and images. And I was Employee #3. The founder also had 4 interns helping out in his other projects (not the startup), but the interns used any available room to do their work. I would also miss the interns tremendously because they made my life more bearable (see later).

Sometime in the middle of the week, Employee #4 arrived. I was still handling paperwork for the interns, for the startup, for E#4 and yes, fixing the printer.

The new computers for me and E#4 arrived. I was in charge of installing necessary software and basically getting the computers up to speed.

Week 2

The founder took me and E#4 to attend a lecture he was giving about patents. The 3 biggest websites for patents were United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office. I learned that the software we’re creating would, how should I put this, scrape the search results from these patent office websites.

What would happen if the HTML results from these patent office websites changed? I don’t know. Maybe the regex was robust enough to handle those changes.

And never mind Google’s patent search. We didn’t know anything back then. Google might have crushed the product already. I haven’t checked the product website, and frankly, I don’t care.

Where was I?

Did you know that a man filed for a patent about swinging a swing sideways? This meant that legally, you couldn’t invent anything that involved (in part or in full) a sideways swinging action on a swing. I learned about the patent language and phrasing such that you encompass the biggest range of parameters in your patent filing document. This is so that even though others can learn about your technique or invention (that’s the point of patents), they couldn’t replicate your results within the legal patent period (of 15 years I think). I also learned that Nintendo filed a lot of patents involving graphics rendering.

Still didn’t get to do coding. Still didn’t do regex. Did you know I studied up on regular expressions prior to my New Zealand trip? I bought a programming book on C# (with a chapter dedicated to regex). I wanted to be prepared.

I finally fixed that (dang) printer. I now moved to documenting the startup’s assets. You know computers and the like. E#1 and E#4 worked on the software product.

1 of the interns completed his internship at the end of the week. I could feel my life turning for the worse…

Week 3

I finally got to look at the code, and I was to document it. During my job interview, I was asked if I had done documentation before. Well, I’ve written parts of software specifications before. And I’ve tried my hand at this XML documentation (the triple slash of C#). I said yes. Well, I was then given the task of documenting the product, because E#1 was too busy cranking out code that nobody except him knew what the software code was doing. E#4 was to help me.

The interns were fun to hang out with. Lunch was my only reprieve, since they were fun people to have lunch with (and work with). They completed their internship that week. My life turned to hell.

Week 4

The founder found out that the product could be decompiled into source code. It’s written in C# on the .NET Framework. The founder was livid with rage. He threatened to sue Microsoft. He’s going to have words with Bill Gates.

I calmly suggested that we could use one of those code obfuscators out there. E#4 seconded that opinion. E#1 said nothing. I would have thought that after months of working on this, the founder (or even E#1) would have known about this.

E#4 also gave his 2 weeks notice. He found another job, while working in this job barely a month in. The founder was not happy. The founder said E#4 could leave at the end of the week.

The founder also told E#1 and me to come up with technical questions to ask in an interview. E#1 was especially proud of a question where the solution was to use a form (object) to call another form to do some task. He was pleased that I didn’t know how to answer his question. I didn’t give a damn.

Week 5

Without the interns, I dreaded having lunch with just E#1 and E#4. E#1 was aloof and haughty and kept to himself. I didn’t know how to communicate with him, especially since he had trouble speaking English, so I spoke with him only in Chinese whenever possible. E#4 was, well… bearable.

Now with the interns gone, and E#4 gone, I decided to have lunch alone. Eating alone was much more preferable than eating with E#1.

I still didn’t get to do any regex work. It turned out that the founder got a PhD student of his to help him with much of the regex already. That part was already embedded in the software, so I didn’t have to do anything.

I also got to see E#2 (wife of E#1) again. She came down to work on creating some icons. She only appeared when graphics work needed to be done.

Now I finally got to work on some new code. The framework was especially bad, if you could call it a framework. The database backend was a Microsoft Access file. And any time a new version or some core database table was changed, the template Access database had to be changed. The problem was how to push out the changes.

Since the product was a Windows executable, the Access database was bundled with it. If there was a version change, how would we push the core database file out to the customer, without damaging any search results the customer had done? I didn’t know how E#1 had designed something like this…

My fondest memory was database query functions. A typical function took 2 arguments: a string containing comma-delimited column names, and a string containing the where clause. I thought this was extremely inflexible. What if we needed return columns that weren’t just the column names? What if we needed a different sort-by clause (it was hardcoded in the function)? What if we didn’t need a where clause?

There were many overloaded functions.

E#1 also had this habit of sloshing water in his mouth. He would sip from his cup, and then swirl the water around in his mouth, making a gargle without the opening-mouth part. Every time I hear it, I had the impending thought he would spit the water out.

E#1 also called me a 4-eyed toad (in Chinese). That’s because I wore glasses. 2 eyes from me, and 2 “eyes” from the pair of glasses. It’s a common nickname used to tease anyone wearing glasses… when you’re 8 years old that is…

The founder wasn’t in the office most of the time, so I spent all my time cooped up with E#1 and E#2.

Here’s a side story. When I was getting a science degree in NUS (where the startup was situated nearby), I used to go to National University Hospital. The hospital was near my faculty, so I would go to the canteen and have food there (because it’s quieter and had less people than university canteens. No student really go there, just hospital staff and doctors and patients). Sometimes, I would go wander the halls of the hospital. You know, because I was an undergraduate, and was curious. I found the experience interesting and exciting and strangely calming.

Well, now I would have lunch alone, then go to the hospital (it’s still nearby) and wander the halls a bit. Just to recapture some of the calm feeling. I remembered there was this vending machine where I would buy a cup of hot chocolate. I would drink that, sigh deeply, and then go back to the small startup office. With E#1 there. The (memory of the) hot chocolate was the only thing that kept me sane during the afternoon.

The founder must have felt something because he called me in at the end of the week. He told me he could sense my unhappiness with working there. Now at this point, I want to tell you that even though I was unhappy, I didn’t think of quitting. The founder told me he’s ok if I wanted to leave.

“Are you letting me go?” I asked.

It’s a nice way of saying I was fired.

The founder also said that E#1 (and E#2) would be moving to Canada (Vancouver I believe) permanently in a couple of weeks time. He had also hired another programmer. This programmer was supposed to be much better. I mean, if E#1 was moving to Canada, that meant the source of my unhappiness (or mostly the source of) would be gone. So what the founder meant was, this new programmer would be better than E#1 AND ME! To rub salt into the wound, I was told that this new programmer would be paid more (than me).

The following week would be my last week.

Week 6

My last week at the startup would be to do as much documentation as possible. Have I mentioned that E#1 had no documentation at all? This would make it easier for E#5 (the new, higher-paid and better programmer) to get into the groove. E#1 and E#2 would still help in a remote manner from Canada.

I made sure the assets were correctly labelled. I made sure that those administrative tasks handled by me were completed (and documented). I shredded pieces of paper with confidential information (and at that point, useless. I was told to shred them by the founder! I wasn’t doing anything sneaky). I wrote documentation for the software product. I might have written a procedure for getting the printer to work. I’m not sure.

On my last day, I made sure I completely wiped all traces of me and my information from the computer I was using. First, it was polite to do so. Second, and most importantly, I didn’t want anyone there to have any information about me (email addresses and such) after I left. And I mean anyone.

For some reason, as Employee #3, I was given one of the only 2 sets of keys to the office. E#1 used to be the one holding it. The other set was kept by the founder. This meant I was always the first person to arrive at the office. Otherwise, no one could get in. I returned those keys to the founder.

That Friday, that last work day of mine, was 24 December 2004. It was Christmas eve. The founder invited me to go to a Christmas party he was holding at his place the next day. I declined.

I stayed half an hour past my working hours to make sure I’ve done all that I could. Then I bade farewell to the founder and E#1.

I walked out of the office, and went downstairs (it was on the second floor of a small building). I thought sadly back to the day when the interns didn’t show up anymore. And felt alive once more after 3 weeks.

Do you have a story to share?

Have you worked at a startup before? Or heard interesting stories about startups? Let me know in the comments. I truly want to believe my story is not the norm.

On military, startups and entrepreneurship

Do you know why there are so few entrepreneurs around? Because it’s uncomfortable to be one. Keep this notion of “comfortability” as you continue to read, since it’s going to be a running theme.

On surviving enormous weights

I slept late last night. Or more accurately, I slept in the early morning today. I do that a lot. One, because I work long hours. Two, because it’s really quiet between 11pm and 2am. I also went to bed hungry.

I lie on my bed, and my last thoughts before I drift off to sleep are typically a combination of the following:

  • What can I do to improve my products/services?
  • “I can work on that piece of code for the product first.”
  • “Wonder what functions do Excel users use? Or what development teams do to support their users? I want to work on practical aspects for the guide, but where and how can I get that information? Nobody’s willing to tell me anything.”
  • What else can I do to create some cashflow?
  • What else can I do to make my customers’ lives easier?
  • What wording should I use for my Google ads?
  • What should I write for the next issue of my magazine?
  • What can I do to improve the copy on the sales page?
  • What can I do to market my products/services without being pushy?
  • Who should I interview for the next issue of my magazine?
  • What videos should I create? How can I do them better?
  • I’m hungry

Last night, faced with the enormity and weight of the tasks ahead of me, a new thought came to the fore. I’m damned lonely. Running an IttyBiz is lonely business, because no one around you understands what the **** you’re doing. (There’ll be some swearing, because it’s the only appropriate response. And that hunger can drain your will and self-control like nothing can.)

So the “I’m damned lonely” and the “I’m hungry” thoughts met one another, and decided to wreak havoc on me. I started sobbing. Silently of course. After a few minutes of self-pity, I reined in my thoughts and emotions and calmed down. (Some might say I shouldn’t “air my failures“, so to speak, but I’m just telling you the truth of what I’m going through. I’m not really failing, I’m just not succeeding enough. Now there’s positive thinking for you!) A new thought came up. “Let’s go to the library!” I don’t know where that came from.

I woke up the next day, hungry of course, and decided to just freakin’ go to the library. Maybe it’ll improve my mood. I just published the April issue of my magazine, and for the 1 or 2 days just after publishing an issue, I would usually feel completely drained. Have you ever launched a product? There’ll be a lot of marketing, blog posts to publish, emails to sent, people to inform, processes to check, and so on. Now imagine doing that every single month.

On military

Anyway, if I’m going to the library, I might as well read some business books or something. So I found this book, Start-Up Nation, by Dan Senor and Saul Singer. Generally, it’s about how the culture and history and geography of Israel made the Israeli military a force to be reckoned with. And subsequently, also made Israel a country of entrepreneurs.

Did you know that the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) helped with the design of rules for Singapore’s own military forces? I didn’t know that, and I’m a Singaporean. The authors wrote that the 3 countries, Israel, Singapore and South Korea are similar in that they’re close to hostile or larger countries. All 3 countries share a strong sense of “self-preservation”, of independence, and thus built a strong military force. However, only Israel created a strong entrepreneurial spirit in her people as well.

Although Singapore’s military is modeled after the IDF – the testing ground for many of Israel’s entrepreneurs – the “Asian Tiger” has failed to incubate start-ups. Why?

Further on, the authors wrote

Singapore’s leaders have failed to keep up in a world that puts a high premium on a trio of attributes historically alien to Singapore’s culture: initiative, risk-taking, and agility.

And all three attributes require a person to be comfortable with being uncomfortable (as paradoxical as it may sound).

Today the alarm bells are being sounded even by Singapore’s founding father, Lee Kuan Yew, who served as prime minister for three decades. “It’s time for a new burst of creativity in business,” he says. “We need many new tries, many start-ups.”

That’s “tries”, not “guarantees”. It implies being uncomfortable, at least for a while. And most people only want to be comfortable.

On foreigners

Israel welcomes immigrants, especially those who are Jewish. Singapore has, well, Singaporeans actually, have issues with immigrants, or what is termed “Foreign Talent” (yes, capital F and T). From what I’ve heard, many Americans have issues with immigrants to America too. One of the reasons is fear. “They will take our jobs! They will feed off our welfare system!”

Singapore and America require immigrants to stay for a while (about 2 years?) before being considered for citizenship. Israel issues citizenship on arrival.

Maids (hired from countries such as Philippines or Indonesian) are fairly common in Singapore. I’ve also heard of a story where a girl was so “comfortable”, that at a buffet spread, she simply points to the food she wants, and the trailing maid behind her would get the food for the girl. Spoilt child, or privileged times? Recently, there’s also a wildly spreading photograph of a Singaporean man in military uniform walking in front of his maid. The maid was carrying the man’s military backpack. I’m ashamed I have to give this as an example of how Singaporeans are too comfortable in their lives. (UPDATE: I’m not sure about the maid carrying the military backpack part. Might be a stunt. But the “comfortable Singaporean” point stands.)

Being a startup founder or entrepreneur is uncomfortable

You’re probably a programmer, or a person working in the technology department. You might be considering becoming a founder of a web startup that will then make millions of dollars. I’m here to tell you it’s going to be uncomfortable. Can you stand being uncomfortable?

You will need to think about making money. From Day One. Not about how cool the application is, or how many users you will get, or how much people will be talking about you. Make money, or sink.

Venture capital or angel funding is not going to save you if you can’t make money. If your startup or business cannot sustain itself, you’re screwed, because it will fail eventually. Because no one’s willing to pay you to sustain it.

On ramen profitability

There were a few times when I tried to explain my plan to a friend or family member. The short-term plan is to reach ramen profitability. After I explained it, the friend or family member would say “That’s not enough! What about savings, health insurance, [insert reason]?”.

Do you know what “ramen profitable” means to you? It means you no longer have to worry about living expenses. Given some margin, it means you can eat whatever you want (oh foooood… uh, sorry.), buy whatever necessities you need, and basically go about your life without worrying too much. In some sense, it’s like financial independence.

But what it really does is give you something that no man can give you, no amount of money can buy: time. You can then make the startup/business better, which generally means more profit without much more work. Or you can create another startup or business if you so wish. Or you can work on that novel (which, let’s face it, is probably not going to make you a lot of money, but gives you much satisfaction). Or that painting. Or volunteering at a shelter. It gives you freedom.

And nobody around me understands that. Of course, the long-term plan is still to make sure I get all the savings and health insurance and whatever finances in order. People see a fixed monthly income, that might possibly increase every year. They see the ramping up of income as “unsafe”, “insecure” and “uncomfortable”, especially since it starts at zero (then to ramen profitable, then to, well however high you want as long you’re willing to work on it).

I had to change my lifestyle so I can work on my business. I’m willing to be uncomfortable, at least for the short-term. I walk whenever I can to save on transport costs. My body aches, either because I’m sitting for too long, or walking for too long. I have this lingering ache right now on my back between the left shoulder blade and the spinal cord. I am frickin’ uncomfortable! I have bread and peanut butter for dinner. Every day. For the past few months. Sometimes, I throw my hands up and just get a proper meal of rice, vegetables and meat. I have lost friends because of the decisions I made. I’m serious about this.

How much are you willing to fight for your dreams? How much are you willing to give up for your goals? How much are you prepared to be uncomfortable?

P.S. I’m working on the “bread and peanut butter” dinner thing. I’m sick and tired of being continually hungry…